|Apioceridae (Insecta: Diptera): cladistic reappraisal and biogeography|
|Yeates, DK, Irwin, ME|
|Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society|
|Apiocera (Anypenus), Apiocera (Apiocera), Apiocera (Pyrocera), Apiocera (Ripidosyrma), Apioceridae, key, Megascelinae, Mydidae, phylogeny, Rhaphiomidinae|
Twenty members of the fly families Apioceridae and Mydidae are compared in terms of 77 adult characters. Cladistic analysis of 91 synapomorphies provides a well corroborated reconstruction of lineage relationships, and reveals that the Apioceridae is paraphyletic with respect to the Mydidae. In order to render the Apioceridae monophyletic, the genus Rhaphiomidas and the subfamily Megascelinae of the Apioceridae are transferred to the Mydidae. The subfamily Rhaphiomidinae is reinstated to accommodate Rhaphiomidas, comprising the most plesiomorphic mydids. The relationships of the remaining subfamilies of Mydidae are discussed in the context of these findings. The genus Apiocera is divided into four subgenera, the type subgenus Apiocera Westwood in Australia, Pyrocera subgen. nov. in North America, and the subgenera Ripidosyrma Hermann and Anypenus Philippi are applied to the South African and South American species, respectively. A key to the four subgenera of Apiocera is provided. The biogeographic relationships of the subgenera and genera of the Apioceridae and the Megascelinae are discussed. Although considered an example of a transantarctic or Gondwanan group, we argue that the distribution of the Apioceridae predates the Mesozoic supercontinent Gondwanaland and extends onto sections of Pangaea, and should be termed 'Pangaean'. The cladistic relationships between the genera of Apioceridae and Megascelinae are consistent with the geological vicariance of the fragments of Pangaea on which they now occur.